9. Genetic structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from two malaria endemic areas in Afghanistan
Sedigheh Zakeri, Najibullah Safi, Mandana Afsharpad, Waqar Butt, Faezeh Ghasemi, Akram Abouie Mehrizia, Hoda Attad, Ghasem Zamanid, Navid Dinparast Djadid
In this study, the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Afghanistan have been investigated by analyzing three genetic markers: csp, msp-1, and msp-3˛. Blood samples (n = 202) were collected from patients presenting with vivax malaria from south-western (Herat) and south-eastern (Nangarhar) parts of Afghanistan, and analysed using nested-PCR/RFLP and sequencing methods. Genotyping pvmsp-1 revealed type 1, type 2 and recombinant type 3 allelic variants, with type 1 predominant in parasites in both study areas. The sequence analysis of 57 P. vivax isolates identified a total of 26 distinct alleles. Genotyping pvcsp gene showed that VK210 type (86.6%) is predominant in Afghanistan. Moreover, three major types of the pvmsp-3˛ locus: type A, type B and type C were distinguished among Afghani isolates. The predominant fragments among Nangarhar and Herat parasites were type A (70.8% and 67.9%, respectively). PCR/RFLP products with Hha I and Alu I were detected 52 and 38 distinct variants among Nangarhar and Herat isolates, respectively. These results strongly indicate that the P. vivax populations in Afghanistan are highly diverse.